Role of women in eradication of

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Role of women in eradication of

Most agricultural civilizations downgraded the status and potential of women, at least according to modern Western standards and to the implicit standards of hunting-and-gathering societies.

Agricultural civilizations were characteristically patriarchal; that is, they were run by men and based on the assumption that men directed political, economic, and cultural life.

Furthermore, as agricultural civilizations developed over time and became more prosperous Role of women in eradication of more elaborately organized, the status of women deteriorated from its initial level. Individual families were normally set up on a patriarchal basis, with the husband and father determining fundamental conditions and making the key decisions, and with humble obedience owed to this male authority.

Patriarchal family structure rested on men's control of most or all property, starting with land itself; marriage was based on property relationships and it was assumed that marriage, and therefore subordination to men, was the normal condition for the vast majority of women.

Modern Japan and Traditional Roles

A revealing symptom of patriarchal families was the fact that, after marrying, a woman usually moved to the orbit and often the residence of her husband's family. Characteristic patriarchal conditions developed in Mesopotamian civilization. Marriages were arranged for women by their parents, with a formal contract being drawn up.

The husband served as authority over his wife and children just as he did over his slaves. Early Sumerians may have given women greater latitude than came to be the case later on. Their religion attributed considerable power to female sexuality and their early law gave women important rights, so that they could not be treated as outright property.

Still, even in Sumerian law the adultery of a wife was punishable by death, while a husband's adultery was treated far more lightly - a double standard characteristic of patriarchalism. Mesopotamian societies after Sumerian times began to emphasize the importance of a woman's virginity on marriage and imposed the veil on respectable women when in public to emphasize their modesty.

These changes showed a progressive cramping of women's social position and daily freedoms. At all points, a good portion of Mesopotamian law such as the Hammurabic code was given over to prescriptions for women, assuring certain basic protections but clearly emphasizing limits and inferiority.

Patriarchal conditions also could vary from one agricultural civilization to another. Egyptian civilization gave women, at least in the upper classes, more credit and witnessed a number of powerful queens. The beautiful Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaton, seemed to have been influential in the religious disputes in this reign.

Some agricultural societies gave women a certain importance by tracing descendants from mothers rather than fathers. This was true, for example, of Jewish law. But even these matrilineal societies held women to be inferior to men; for example, Jewish law insisted that men and women worship separately.

So while variety is truly important, it usually operated within a framework of basic patriarchalism. It was around B. Fill her belly, clothe her back. But hold her back from getting the mastery. Remember that her eye is her stormwind, and her vulva and mouth are her strength. As agriculture improved using better techniques, women's labor, though still absolutely vital, became less important than it had been in hunting-and-gathering or early agricultural societies.

This was particularly true in the upper classes and in cities where men frequently took over the most productive work, craft production, or political leadership, for example.

Role of women in eradication of

The inferior position of women in the upper classes was usually more marked than in peasant villages where women's labor remained essential. More generally, agricultural societies were based on concepts of property, beginning with the ways land was organized.

Early law codes were based on property relationships. It seemed essential in these circumstances for a man to be sure who his heirs were - that is, to try to make sure that he monopolized the sexual activities of his wife or wives.

This situation helps account for the strong legal emphasis placed on women's sexual fidelity and the tendency to treat women themselves as part of a man's property. Within this framework, in turn, it became possible to think of women as inferior and partly ornamental, so that when groups achieved a certain prosperity they often tried to demonstrate this by further reducing the status of women.

This was a very clear pattern in Chinese civilization and may have operated also in India and, later, in western Europe.

The Role of Women in Soviet Russia

Patriarchalism, in sum, responded to economic and property conditions in agricultural civilizations and might deepen over time. Patriarchalism raises important questions about women themselves.

Many women internalized the culture of patriarchalism, holding that it was their job to obey and to serve men and accepting arguments that their aptitudes were inferior to those of men.role of women in eradication of corruption It is a matter of shame that even after 63 years of independence, India figures among the thirty most corrupt countries.

The virus of corruption has crept into all walks of life and it can endanger the body politic of our nation. This week, UN Women marks three UN observances that reflect women's key role in development, beginning with International Day for Rural Women on 15 October, World Food Day on 16 October and International Day for .

For ages, in almost every culture, women, and men, have suffered from the system of patriarchy, where a man or a group of men controls a family, group, or government. proper roles and responsibilities of men and women.

These cultural and social norms socialize males to be aggressive, powerful, unemotional, and controlling, and contribute to a social. The record of women in colonial Virginia begins with Native Americans and gradually includes European and African women.

The experiences of these women differed widely depending on their ethnicity, their status, and the gender roles defined by their culture. The Role of Women in Mormonism This article is used with the author's permission.

I found it to be particularly insightful. This might help explain to the readers why for every letter I get from a man, I get 4 letters from women who were Mormons.

Women In Patriarchal Societies